spacer
Click here for main page
Click here for new cases page
Click here for news items
Click here for articles
Click here for book
Click here for links and search engines
Click here to e-mail
Click here for author's biography

  Previous articles
  Print this page

SupportGuidelines.com

THE LINK BETWEEN VISITATION AND SUPPORT COMPLIANCE

Laura Wish Morgan
with Chuck Shively of the Department of Social & Health Services, Washington State

When non-custodial fathers who are behind in their support obligation are asked the reason for non-compliance, 23% answered lack of visitation. Consequently, the Office of Child Support Enforcement has placed an emphasis on the non-custodial father's access to his children based on the premise that greater access means great support compliance. Sumati Dubey, A Study of Reasons for Nonpayment of Child Support by Noncustodial Parents, 1996 Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare (abstract available). See also Daniel R. Meyer, Compliance with Child Support Orders in Paternity and Divorce Cases (Institute for Research on Poverty, Madison, Wisconsin, 1997) (full text); Deena Mandell, Fathers Who Don't Pay Child Support: Hearing Their Voices, 23 Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 85 (1995) (abstract available). But is this true?

Early research tended to support the hypothesis that the more a father sees his children the more consistent his child support payments will be. Visitation by the father is "an important means of facilitating positive child support outcomes and better family relationships," concluded one study. Some studies went even further to conclude that visitation would increase payments if visits provided information about children's material needs. Fathers would therefore pay additional support to take care of these needs. Judith Seltzer summarized this "reciprocal causation" hypothesis, so widely accepted by other researchers, that "visiting and paying child support" are complimentary activities if noncustodial parents anticipate that seeing children will enhance the satisfaction that they get from paying support, and if they expect that paying support will enhance the quality of time they spend with their children. It was widely held that greater father-child contact would facilitate greater financial responsibility by fathers.

Although some researchers, like Lenore Weitzman, were strongly arguing for universal enforcement of child support obligations as early as 1985, this was not the prevailing opinion among researchers of that time. Most of the research studies agreed with the conclusion that facilitating and encouraging parental involvement on the part of divorced fathers may be an easier, more effective approach to insuring that children receive their child support than enforcement. Enforcement may actually have a negative effect in terms of further alienating fathers from their children, they believed.

As researchers began to stop collecting their data mainly from fathers and began to explore the relationship between visiting and paying child support in longitudinal studies, the theory that increased visitation would result in increased child support compliance began to wane. In 1993, the Office of Economic Research, U.S. Bureau of Labor undertook a study based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The NLSY is a survey of more than 12,000 men and women who are interviewed annually since 1979. The authors of this study found contrary to previous studies, increases in visitation have no effect on changes in child support.

Although this study concluded that any increase in the rate of visitation, over a period of time, does not result in any increase in child support, it still found an association between child support and visitation. Do fathers who visit more often tend to pay more child support, or do fathers who pay child support tend to visit more? Subsequent studies have still not answered this conclusively. The author of this study could only speculate that it "appears to be due to unmeasured characteristics of the parents rather than changes in child support responding to changes in visitation." In attempts to determine why fathers who visited more often also paid more child support, research began to suggest that if non-custodial fathers invest economic resources in their children, they also invest time and attention as well.

In one of her studies of this hypothesis, Judith Seltzer divided the relationship of the noncustodial father with his children into three roles and gathered data to determine what extent participation in one of those roles would predict or influence activity in the others. These three roles and responsibilities of the father after separation were: participating in decisions about how the children will be raised, spending time with the children, and contributing to the children's economic support. Not surprisingly, the results of this study, numbering more than 1,300 respondents, showed that most fathers have very little influence in child-rearing and are unlikely to discuss the children with their mother. This outcome seems obviously related to the fact that over 40% of the fathers in this study had no more than one day of contact with their children in the past year. Only 27% of the respondents saw their children more than once a week. More importantly, the father's low level of social involvement mirrored the absence of economic ties to their children. Fathers who feel little obligation to their children are reluctant to provide material support and show little, if any, interest in child rearing. Those fathers who did pay were found to have more contact and influence regarding child-rearing decisions. While this study offered no definitive statement that payment of child support will result in full participation in the other roles, the researchers did conclude that "increasing fathers' economic ties to children in the early years after separation may have long term effects on continued involvement throughout childhood."

In additional research on fathers' involvement in these three defined roles, Ms. Seltzer concluded that stronger emphasis on establishing this economic tie to the children through "improved child support enforcement is especially likely to increase visiting if parents define their role as having both economic and social components. Noncustodial parents who pay support may feel more uncomfortable about playing only part of the parent role than they do about avoiding parental responsibilities."

Additional studies also suggest that payment of child support has a greater influence on contact than contact has on payment of child support. The degree of compliance with a child support order in the previous year is a significant predictor of visitation even after past visitation history is controlled as a variable in the study. The findings, that contact appears to have a weaker influence on paying child support than payment has on contact, suggest efforts to increase contact will not necessarily result in more child support. However, efforts to enforce compliance with payment of child support could lead to more child contact. Perhaps the "unmeasured characteristics" previously mentioned result if father identity is so high that men remain anchored in that identity and enact fathering roles accordingly. To help develop this identity, the enforcement of child support appears to be the most effective starting point:

A growing number of studies show a positive association between the amount of child support that nonresidential fathers pay and their children's behavior and school achievement. A dollar of child support, in other words has a greater effect on outcomes for children than does a dollar from other sources, such as earnings or AFDC. Child support may have a symbolic value for children, indicating their father's concern and reinforcing the beneficial effects of the greater amount of time that fathers who pay support spend with their children . . . Child support has a positive effect on children's well-being, even when differences in visiting and conflict are controlled statistically. The preliminary evidence suggests that more universal and rigorous child support enforcement may enhance the well-being of children whose parents divorce.

J. Seltzer and D. Meyer, "Child Support and Children's Well-Being," at 34, Focus (Fall 1996).

An access and visitation program should more appropriately be designed as a father involvement program. It should develop partnerships with organizations or provide services that are more broadly based on father's involvement than simply addressing disputes resulting from visiting problems. The focus should be on aiding father involvement at the earliest possible stage. To accomplish this goal the program must encompass these objectives:

  • Prevent men from having children before they are ready for the financial and emotional responsibilities of fatherhood.
  • Prepare men for the legal, financial and emotional responsibilities of fatherhood.
  • Promote paternity establishment at childbirth.
  • Reach out to men who are fathers, whether married or not, to foster their emotional connections to and financial support of their children.
  • Actively support fathers in the variety of their roles and in their continuing connection with their children. Create a connection with job training programs to enable men to assume the financial responsibility for their children.

Given that research has shown sporadic, infrequent visits when there is ongoing conflict between the parents is detrimental for children and, furthermore, conflict is the major predictor for the mother to want less father-child contact, these attempts could be radically counterproductive. It is a father's involvement, not contact, that benefits children. For a father to remain involved, regardless of his initial commitment to do so, the relationship and support from the mother is more important than incidence of father-child contact. Furthermore, research shows that continued involvement depends more on his satisfaction with his visitation rather than the number of times he has contact with the child.

RESOURCES

Ahrons, C. (1983). Predictors of paternal involvement postdivorce: Mothers' and Fathers' perceptions. Journal of Divorce Vol. 6(3) 55-69.

Ahrons, C. and Miller, R. (1993). The effect of the postdivorce relationship on paternal involvement: A longitudinal analysis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Vol.63(3), 441-450.

Amato, P.R. (1991). Consequences of parental divorce for the well-being of children. Psychological Bulletin 110, 26-46.

Amato, P.R. (1993). Children's adjustment to divorce: Theories, hypotheses, and empirical support. Journal of Marriage and the Family 55, 23-38.

Anthony, E.J. (1974). Children at risk from divorce: A review. In E.J.Anthony (ed.), The Child in his Family: Children at Psychiatric Risk. (Vol. 3). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Arbuthnot, J. and Gordon, D. (1996) Does mandatory divorce education for parents work? A six-month outcome evaluation. Family and Conciliation Courts Review Vol.34 No. 1, 60-81.

Arditti, J.A. (1991). Child support noncompliance and divorced fathers: Rethinking the role of paternal involvement. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 14, 107-119.

Arditti, J.A. (1992). Differences between fathers with joint custody and noncustodial fathers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 62(2), 186-195.

Arditti, J.A. (1992). Factors related to custody, visitation, and child support for divorced fathers: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 17(3/4) 23-42.

Arditti, J.A. and Keith, T. (1993). Visitation frequency, child support payment and the father-child relationship postdivorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family 55, 699-712.

Arditti, J.A. and Kelly M.(1994). Fathers' perspectives of their coparental relationships postdivorce: Implications for family practice and legal reform. Family Relations 43, 61-66

Arditti, J.A. and Bickley. (1996). Fathers' involvement and mothers' parenting stress postdivorce. Journal of Divorce and the Family Vol.26(l/2), 1-23.

Arendell, T. (1986). Mothers and Divorce'. Legal, economic, and social dilemmas. Berkley: University of California Press.

Arendell, T (1992). After Divorce: investigations into father's absence. Gender & Society Vol.6 No.4, 562-586.

Arendell, Terry. (1995). Fathers and Divorce. Thousand Oaks, Cal. Sage Publications.

Baydar, N. (1988). Effects of parental separation and reentry into union on the emotional well-being of children. Journal of Marriage and the Family 50, 967-981.

Bailey, W. (1994). Fathers' involvement and responding to infants: More may not be better. Psychological Reports 74, 92-94.

Barber, B. (1994). Support and advice from married and divorced fathers: Linkages to adolescent adjustment.

Family Relations 43, 433-438.

Bamett, R.L., Marshall, N.L., and Fleck, J. (1992). Men's multiple roles and their relationship to men's psychological distress. Journal of Marriage and the Family 54, 358-367.

Berg, B., and Kelly, R. (1979). The measurement of self-esteem of children from broken, rejected, and accepted families. Journal of Divorce 2, 363-369.

Bertoia, C. and Drakich, J. (1993) The father's rights movement: Contradictions in rhetoric and practice. Journal of Family lssues.Vo\ 14, No.4, 592-615.

Biondi, E. (1996). Legal implications of parent education programs for divorcing and separating parents. Family and Conciliation Courts Review Vol.34 No.l, 82-92.

Blaisure, K.R., and Geasler, M. (1996). Results of a survey of court-connected parent education programs in U.S. counties. Family and Conciliation Court Review 34, No.l, 23-40.

Blankenhom, D, (1995). Fatherless America: Confronting our most urgent social problem. New York: Basic Books.

Braver, S., Wolchik,S., Sandier, L., Fogas, B., and Zvetina, D. (1991) Frequency of visitation by divorced fathers: Differences in reports by fathers and mothers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 61(3), 448-454.

Braver, S., Salem, P., Pearson, J., and DeLuse, S. (1996). The content of divorce education programs: Results of a survey. Family and Conciliation Courts Review Vol. 34 No.l, 41-59.

Brody, G., and Forehand, R. (1990) Intrerparental conflict, relationship with the noncustodial father, and adolescent post-divorce adjustment. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology II, 139-147.

Buehier, P., Betz, P., Ryan, C., Legg, B., and Trotter, B. (1991). Description and evaluation of the Orientation for Divorcing Parents: Implications for postdivorce prevention programs. Family Relations 41, 154-162.

Castro, M., andBumpass, L. (1989) Recent trends and differentials inmarital disruption. Demography 26, 37-51.

'Chambers, D. (1979). Making fathers Pay: The Enforcement.of Child Support. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Cherlin, A.J., Furstenberg, F.F., Jr., Chase-Lansdale, P., Keiman, K.E., Morrison, D.R., and Teitler, J. (1991). Longitudinal studies of effects of divorce on children in Great Britain and the United States. Science 252, 1386-1389.

dark, J. and Barber, B.L. (1994). Adolescents in post-divorce and always-married families: Self esteem and perceptions of their fathers' direct and differential interest. Journal of Marriage and the Family 56, 45-56.

Cohen, T. (1987). Remaking men: Men's experiences becoming and being husbands and fathers and their implications for reconceptualizing men's lives. Journal of Family Issues Vol. 8 No. l, 57-77.

Cohen, T. (1993). What do fathers provide? In J.Hood(ed.),(pp.l-22). Men, Work, and Family, Newbury Park, Ca. Sage Publications..

Coltrane S. (1994). Family man: Fatherhood, housework, and gender equity. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

Daly, K. (1993). Through the eyes of others: Reconstructing the meaning of fatherhood. In T. Haddad (Ed.) (pp. 203-212). Men and masculinity: A critical anthology. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.

Daly, K. (1993). Reshaping fatherhood: Finding the models. Journal of Family Issues Vol.14, No. 4, 510-530.

Davis, P.B., and May, J.E. (1991). Involving fathers in early intervention and family support programs: Issues and strategies. Children's Health Care 20, 87-92.

Demo, D.H., and Acock, A.C. (1988) The impact of divorce on children. Journal of Marriage and the Family 50, 619-648.

Doherty, W., Kouneski, E. and Erickson, M. (1996). Responsible Fathering: An Overview and Conceptual Framework. Report prepared for the Administration for Children and Families of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.

Downey, D.B. (1994). The school performance of children from single-mother and single-father families: Journal of Family Issues Vol. 5, No. 1, 129-147.

Dudley, J. (1991). Increasing our understanding of divorced fathers who have infrequent contact with their children. Family Relations 40, 279-285.

Dudley, J. (1996). Noncustodial fathers speak about their parental role. Family and Conciliation Courts Review Vol. 34, No. 3, 410-426.

Edin, K. (1995). Single mothers and absent fathers: The possibilities and limits of child support policy. Child and Youth Services Review. 17, 203-230.

First Yearimplementation Report for Fathering: The Man and the Family. Prepared by the DHHS Fathers' Work Group. May 1997.

Fox G., and Blanton, P. (1995) Noncustodial fathers following divorce. Marriage & Family Review Vol.20, No. 1/2, 257-282.

Furstenberg, F.F., Jr., (1988). Good dads/bad dads: Two faces of fatherhood. In A.J. Cherlin (ed.), The changing American family and public policy (pp. 193-218). Washington D.C.: Urban Institute Press.

Furstenberg, F.F., Jr., Nord, C., Peterson, F.J., and Zill, N. (1983). The life course of divorce: Marital disruption and parental contact. American Sociological Review 48, 656-667.

Furstenberg, F.F., Jr., Morgan, S.P., and Allison, P.D. (1987). Paternal participation and children's well-being after marital dissolution. American Sociological Review 52, 695-701.

Furstenburg, F.F., Jr., (1988). Marital disruptions, child custody, and visitation in S. Kamerman & A.

Furstenberg, F.F. Jr., and Cherlin, A.J. (1991). Divided Families: What Happens to Children when Parents Part. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Furstenberg, F.F., Jr. (1992). Daddies and Fathers: Men who do for their children and men who don't. In F.F Furstenberg, Jr., Kay Sherwood, and Mercer Sullivan (eds). Caring and Paying: what fathers and mothers say about child support. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Center, Chap III.

Furstenberg, F.F., Jr., and Harris, K.M. (1993). When and why fathers matter: Impacts of father involvement on the children of adolescent mothers. In R. Leman & T. Ooms (eds.), Young unwed fathers: Changing roles and emerging policies, (pp.l 17-138). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Gray, C., Verdieck, M., Smith, E., and Freed, K. (1997). Making It Work: An evaluation of Court Mandated Parenting Workshops for Divorcing Families. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, Vol. 35, No. 3, 280-292.

Grief, G.L. (1985). Single Fathers. Lexington, Ma: Lexington Books.

Greif, G., and Kristall, J. (1993) Case study: common themes in a group for noncustodial parents. The Journal of Contemporary Human Services 240-245.

Griswold, R.L. (1993). Fatherhood in America: A history. New York: Basic Books.

Guttmann, J., (1989) The divorced father: A review of the issues and the research. Journal of Comparative Family Studies Vol. XX, No. 2, 249-261.

Hawkins, A., Christiansen, S., Pond-Sargent, K., and Hill, E.J. (1993). Rethinking fathers' involvement in child care: A developmental perspective. Journal of Family Issues Vol. 14, No. 4, 531-549.

Healy, J.M.,Jr., Malley, J., and Stewart, A. (1990). Children and their fathers after separation . American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 60(4), 531-543.

Hines, A. (1997). Divorce-related transitions, adolescent development, and the role of the parent-child relationship: A review of the literature. Journal of Marriage and the Family 59, 375-388.

Hofftnan, C. (1995). Pre-and post-divorce father-child relationships and child adjustments: Noncustodial fathers' perspectives. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage Vol. 23 (1/2), 3-19.

Horowitz, R., and Dodson, G. (1985). Child support, custody andvisitation: A report to state child support commissions. American Bar Association: Washington D.C.

lhinger-Tallman, M., Pasley, K., and Buehier, C. (1993). Developing a middle-range theory of father involvement postdivorce. Journal of Family Issues Vol. 14, No.4, 550-571.

Jenkins, J., Park, N., and Peterson-Badali, M., (1997). An evaluation of supervised access II: Perspectives of Parents and Children. Family and Conciliation Courts Review Vol.35, No. 1, 51-65.

Johnston, J., Kline, M., and Tschanmn, J.M. (1989). Ongoing Postdivorce conflict in families contesting custody: Do joint custody and frequent access help? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 59, 576-592.

Kahn (eds.). Child Support: From debt collection to social policy. Beverly Hills: Sage, 277-305.

King, V. (1994). Nonresident father involvement and child well-being: Can dads make a difference?

Journal of Family Issues Vol. 15, No. 1, 78-96.

Koch, M., and Lowery, C. (1984). Visitation and the noncustodial father. Journal of Divorce Vol. 8(2), 47-65.

Kramer, L., and Washo, C,. (1993). Evaluation of a court-mandated prevention program for divorcing parents. Family Relations 42, 179-186.

Kruk, E. (1991). Discontinuity between pre-and post-divorce father-child relationships: New evidence regarding paternal disengagement. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 16(3/4), 195-227.

Kruk, E.(1994), The disengaged noncustodial father: Implications for social work practice with the divorced family. Social Work: Journal of the National Association of Social Workers. 39, 15-25.

Lamb, M.E. (1986). The Father's Role: Applied Perspectives. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Lamb, M.E., Stemberg, K., and Thompson, R. (1997). The effects of divorce and custody arrangements on children's behavior, development, and adjustment. Family and Conciliation Courts Review Vol. 35, No.4. 393-404.

Lamb, M.E. and Sagi, A. (1983). Fatherhood and family policy. Hilisdale, N.J. Lawrence Erkbaum Associates.

LaRossa, R., Gordon, B., Bajran, A, and Jaret, C. (1991). The fluctuating image of the 20th century American father. Journal of Marriage and the Family 53, 987-997.

Levine, James. A., and Pitt, E. (1995). New Expectations: Community Strategies for Responsible Fatherhood. New York. Families and Work Institute.

Maccoby, E.E., Buchann, C.M., Mnookin, R.H., and Dombusch, S.M. (1993). Postdivorce roles of mothers and fathers in the lives of their children. Journal of Family Psychology 7, 24-38.

Marsiglio, W. (1991). Paternal engagement activities with minor children. Journal of Marriage and the Family 53, 973-986.

Marsiglio, W. (1993). Contemporary scholarship on fatherhood: Culture, Identity, and conduct. Journal of Family Issues Vol. 14, No. 4, 484-509.

McBride, B.A., and Mills, G. (1993). A comparison of mother and father involvement with their preschool age children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 8, 457-477.

McLanahan, S. and Sandefur, G. (1994). Growing up with a single parent: What hurts, What helps.

Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press.

McLanahan, S., Seltzer, J., Hanson, T., and Thomson, E. (1994) Child support enforcement and child well being: Greater security or greater conflict? in Garfinkel, 1., McLanahan, S., and Robins, P. (eds.) Child Support and Child Well-Being. Chapter eight, 241-256.

Mechanic, D., and Hansell, S. (1989) Divorce, family conflict, and adolescents' well-being.

Journal of Health and Social Behavior 30, 105-116.

Minton, C., and Pasley, K. (1996). Fathers' parenting role identity and father involvement: A comparison of nondivorced and divorced, nonresidential dads. Journal of Family Issues Vol. 17, No. l, 26-45.

Morrison, D.R. and Cherlin, A.J. (1995). The divorce process and young children's well-being: A prospective analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family 57, 800-812.

Mott, F.L.(1990) When is a father really gone? Paternal-child contact in father-absent homes.

Demography Vol.27, No.4, 499-586.

Pagani-Kurtz, L., and Derevensky, J. (1997) Access by noncustodial parents: Effects upon children's postdivorce coping resources. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage Vol. 27(1/2) 43-55.

Park, W., Peterson-Badali, M., and Jenkins, J. (1997) An evaluation of supervised access 1: Organizational issues. Family and Conciliation Courts Review Vol. 35, No.l, 37-50.

Pearson, J. and Thoennes, N. (1988). The Denial of Visitation Rights: A preliminary look at its incidence correlates, antecedents and consequences. Law & Policy Vol. lO, No. 4. 363-380.

Pearson, J. and Thoennes, N. (1994). Child Access Demonstration Projects: Final Wave I Report. Report prepared for the Office of Child Support Enforcement. U.S. Department of Human and Health Services.

Pearson, J. and Thoennes, N. (1996). An analysis of Child Demonstration Projects, Wave I and Wave II:

A Report to Congress. Center for Policy Studies. Denver, Co.

Peterson-Badali, M., Maresca, J., Park, N., and Jenkins, J. (1997) An evaluation of supervised access III Perspectives from the legal system. Family and Conciliation Courts Review Vol. 35, No.l 66-78.

Peterson, J.L., and Zill, N. (1986). Marital disruption, parent-child relationships, and behavior problems in children. Journal of Marriage and the Family 48, 295-307.

Phares, V. (1996). Conducting nonsexist research, prevention, and treatment with fathers and mothers: A call for change. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 20, 55-77.

Polikoff, N.D. (1985). Custody and Visitation: Their relationship to establishing and enforcing child support, in R. Horowitz and D. Dodson (eds.) Improving Child Support Practice: Volume Two. Washington, D.C.: The American Bar Association.

Ross, J.M. (1994). What Men Want: mothers, fathers, and manhood. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press.

Ruggles, S. (1997). The rise of divorce and separation in the United States, 1880-1990. Demography Vol. 34, No.4, 455-456.

Seltzer, J., Schaeffer, N., and Chang, H. (1989). Family ties after divorce: The relationship between visiting and paying child support. Journal of Marriage and the Family 51(4). 1013-1031.

Seltzer, J. (1991) Relationships between fathers and children who live apart: The father's role after separation. Journal of Marriage and the Family 53,79-101.

Seltzer, J., and Brandreth, Y. (1994) What fathers say about involvement with children after separation. Journal of Family Issues Vol. 15, No. 1,49-77.

Seltzer, J. and Meyer, D. (1996). Child support and children's well-being. Focus. Fall, 31-36.

Sorenson, E.(1997). A national profile of nonresident fathers and their ability to pay child support, Journal of Marriage and the Family 59, 785-797.

Stephan, E., Freedman, V, and Hess, J. (1993). Near and far: Contact of children with their non-residential fathers. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage Vol.20(3/4), 171-191.

Stephens, L. S. (1996). Will johnny see daddy this week? An empirical test of three theoretical perspectives of postdivorce contact. Journal of Family Issues Vol. 17, No.4,466-494.

Strauss, R., and Alda, E. (1994). Supervised child access: The evolution of a social service.

Family and Conciliation Courts Raliau34, No. 1, 23-40.

Teachman, J. (1991). Contributions to children by divorced fathers. Social Problems Vol. 38, No.3, 358-371

Veum, J. (1993). The relationship between child support and visitation: Evidence from longitudinal data.

Social Science Research Vol.22, No. 3, 229-244.

Weingarten, K. (1994). The mother's voice. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Weitzman, L.J. (1985). The divorce revolution: The unexpected social and economic consequences for women and children in America.New York: Free Press.

Wright, D.W., and Price, S. (1986). Court-ordered child support payment: The effect of the former spouse relationship on compliance. Journal of Marriage and the Family 48, 869-874.

Zill, N. and Nord, C.W. (1994). Running in place: How American families are faring in a changing economy and individualistic society. Washington D.C.: Child Trends.

Zill, N. and Nord, C.W. (1996) Non-Custodial Parents ' Participation in their Children's Lives: Evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Report prepared for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Print this page

[main] [bio] [new cases] [book] [articles] [resources] [contact]
[disclaimer] [copyright © 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002] [colophon & credits]
[site map]